Development of Education in India after Independence
The Indian system of education can be easily divided into two broad categories on the basis of the distinct features and format of teaching. The basic differentiations in the education system are quite focused as the Indian approach towards education and systems implemented in the modern context. These can be characterized as the “Ancient Gurukulam System” and the modern system laid down by the British rulers in India. The old system was designed as per the requirements prevailing at that time and covered various aspects of cultural values of the old times. The modern system is altogether different as it focuses on the developments as per the principles laid by the modern world. The differentiation in between the old system and new pattern can be easily understood if we take a clear view on both the systems.
An overview on Indian education old system
There are several factors that indicate that the ancient Indian system of education was much inclined towards cultural values and was largely depending on the traditional classification of the society. The educational values were different for the different categories and specific traits were prevailing, that clearly portray that the majority of education streams were caste and profession oriented. Those born as Brahmin (In priest family) were deemed eligible for the studies of Veda and other sacred text which were not allowed for the other lower castes.
Apart the methodology of teaching was quite informal and the Gurukul system was majorly treated as the basic of education. These units were not inclined towards the developments of the formal system as the majority of the knowledge was transferred from the Guru to disciples in the form of the recitals. As we all know that the Vedas are the collation of the Sanskrit based one liner called ‘Sutras’. These types of texts were taught and the students have to mug up the concepts. The most of the learning outcome of these sacred texts are linked with the virtue of developing the capacity that a person may attain the position of self-realization.
The teaching methodology was based on the usage of the Listening, Memorizing, and Repetition of the previous lessons. One can very easily find the inferences about the usage of the Sutras in the classical text dating back to the ancient history. Most of the Vedas and the other related texts are in the form of one liner. The documented evidence about the Indian system of Education is found at the beginning of the 12th century onwards. During this time, the recital system was prevailing but the developments in education systems like as Universities of ancient India depicts the intelligentsia. The whole process of Indian education in older context can be summarized as the system of value developments and the professional competence or the other objectives were not highlighted at a greater level. These were deemed as the byproduct of an education system.
An overview on Indian education system today
The present Indian education system is affected by many factors that can be summarized as Social, Political, Administrative, and Technological advancements. The majority of the education methodology prevailing today are adopted from the western system of education be it at the primary level or for the advanced level studies. The very basic reason for this can be found in the implementations of the British government in India during the period of colonialism. It was Lord Macaulay who imposed the western or modern system of Education in India that has the main motive of developing the education pedagogy in such a manner that most of the educated people are just literate and can be used to carry out the operations to assist British government at that time.
There are several adaptations that have been made in order to make the education system more productive and it is giving positive results. Though the current system is adopted and the school level education is not up to the mark in developing employability, but on the other fronts like as the development of technical education and others progress is quite encouraging. On the other hand, the factors like reservation and expenses in professional education have created many restrictions that are compartmentalizing the society at the large. While we will discuss the efforts that are made in educational reforms post-independence the above factors play a critical role when we want to assess the panoramic view of the current education system in India.
Post-independence Efforts to Reform Indian Educational System
The major developments in the education system of India after Independence can be accessed on the basis of the outcome of the various planning’s and policy level implementations carried out by the government of India. The Education sector was provided with a 7.9% of a total budgetary provision of the first five-year plan. Similarly in the second and third plan, the provisions were reduced up to 5.8% and 6.9% of the total budgetary provisions; and in the ninth plan merely 3.5% of the total budgetary provisions were spared for education.
These figures clearly depict that Education was never a prime concern for the Government and the policy makers. Though several efforts were made to populate the educational reforms but nothing can be portrayed as benchmark till now. The universal primary education is again become a crippled policy and the conditions of the government schools is not too inspiring, but can be termed as pathetic. Adding to it the tri-language formula is not proven effective as the over influence of English has created a situation where a child has to learn English to acquire knowledge of another subject. Contrary to this the Japanese children are learning the different subjects in their mother tongue.
Apart this, the privatization of technical education in different states has ruined the quality and standards of the technical education too. The employability index related surveys depict that only 3.2% of the engineering students are employable as per the industry standards. There are a lot of issues that need to be rectified in getting proper results of the proposed reforms at both social and administrative levels.